Thursday, January 12, 2012
Wednesday, January 11, 2012
Tuesday, January 10, 2012
Pastor /Priest/ to the bride: Do you promise to love, honor, cherish and protect him, forsaking all others and holding only to him forevermore?
Bride: "I do".
There’s always a season for everything under the sun, says the Holy Bible. Now that the fasting time of the year is over, the big season is already well underway, once again – the period where many budding couples desperately waiting for … that day when this special bond between the two souls is instituted through tying the wedding knot after promising to become companions for a lifetime… the day when they would be able to say “I do”, witnessing to public. There’s no doubt about it, wedding ceremonies are in full swing and you can observe this at any corner of our major cities, specially, on weekends in the month of April. Indeed this is the season when the words “I do” are heard in churches all over the country and the weight of the promise resonates in the hearts of happy couples who want to devote themselves to a lifetime of love and happiness. Since most folks in Ethiopia are religious (or, at times, desire to be seen like other pious ones…you know, this is a culturally approved relationship) marriages are very commonly conducted in churches. Somebody said that marriages are made in heaven and celebrated on earth. I think this is true as it signifies the physical, mental and spiritual unison of two souls…the reason why most of the bonding ritual should take place in these shrines.
The institution of marriage is valuable to society as a whole, because it is the foundation of the family, which in turn is the fundamental building block of society. Many agree that marriages seem to be common across various cultures, ethnic groups, different colors, and religious boundaries with some possible variations here and there; hence, the underlying notion of marriage remains the same all over the world: it plays a crucial role in transferring the culture and civilization from one generation to the other, so that the human race is prospered. However, way of solemnizing it differs widely, depending on traditions and ways of life of that particular community. Despite some pecularities and ethnic distinctions, Ethiopian marriages are mostly a family affair in most cases and, therefore, involve the merging of two lives, two families, and sometimes even two communities! Therefore, they are often very elaborate, involving feasting and dancing for weeks, if not for months.
Alas, gone with the days for the unadulterated traditions of Ethiopian matrimony, except, of course, arranged marriages in most ethnic groups and major cities of Ethiopia, thanks to modern education (I don’t mean they have altogether disappeared, though). The number of early marriages, too, seem to have somehow declined in the last 10 years or so, according to recent reports, which is also a good news. Nevertheless, I believe a lot of advocacy work has to be done to bring about significant changes in these directions. Originally, arranged marriages, so they say, were meant to bring about “perfect” matchmaking, though, later they took different forms and I think it’s good that they’re gradually out of the picture, at least in our major cities. By the way, I wonder whether there’s any difference in our arranged marriages and the modern-day high tech ‘computer-dating’ or ‘love connection’ TV programs,… except that the latter are based on written high-tech data collection…otherwise, all seem to focus on kind of matchmaking, don’t they?.... Food for thought!!
Anyway, a marriage ceremony represents one of life's greatest commitments, and is also a declaration of love. Our efforts to part from this traditionally arranged marriage as well as the practice of early-age matrimony is totally laudable. In other words, it's encouraging to see a progressive transformation over the years in the Ethiopian wedding culture…I don't mean we should absoulutely opt the modern forms…(may be a little too early for that). Yet, I still have qualms as to whether we have seriously taken drastic steps in certain areas. Among these, the extravagant expenses that some squander for a single wedding day (which may later bring about discord and sorrow) is one concern; the respectable culture of sending shimaglewoch (elderly men sent by the groom to the bride’s parents, kith and kin, to inquire their willingness to accept the groom for marriage) has now become a superficial drama and, in fact, unnecessary. This is because it’s a foregone conclusion that nothing changes the scenario now even if parents disagree, unlike before. Yet, the practice is deeply stamped in people’s mind and they do this rite knowing that it’s not worth doing. I mean I don’t see why we shouldn’t leave that part altogether. I don’t want to throw cold water on the moment of bliss, but I must say we should have a sense of balance of our cultural rituals if we are to keep moving from the old to the modern ways.
Did I hear somebody say, “I do” …?
Pastor/Priest “May the Lord bless you and keep you. May the Lord make his face shine upon you, and be gracious unto you. May the Lord lift up his countenance unto you, and give you peace.”
Congratulations, you may kiss your bride!
Apart from being the lengthy fasting season (Lent) which made many of us “hibernate” from k’urt’, t’ibs and kitfo (raw, roasted and minced meat), which are the majority’s favorites, (not to mention alcoholic beverages, in some instances), March is a historic month not only for Ethiopia but for the whole of Africa, too. And certainly equally momentous for women all over the world…hope you know what I’m getting at…the International Women’s Day. So, if now and then I wander from one of these thoughts to the other in this article, I hope you’ll forgive my lack of focus as I have already confessed. Besides, you must have noticed that I was pooped from the long fasting…and perhaps busy work … and needed to have a break…just kidding.
Almost a week before the Int’l women’s day, Ethiopians always honor their triumph against a foreign aggression at Adwa. Stunning as it was, the anniversary of the battle of Adwa, is a commemoration of THE greatest victory against foreign belligerence in the African continent - in which the only African, Ethiopian, army defeated the invading and the then unimaginably powerful European, Italian, army on March 1, 1896. March 2 is, therefore, the day we honor to our flag-wavers, who were led by Emperor Menelik II and his clever wife, Empress Taitu, who drove out this superpower, the invading Italian army, from the northern Ethiopia after the decisive battle at a small town called Adwa. Since then, this victory became an icon of independence of a nation and pride for all black people around the World. Later, the colors of Ethiopia's flag - green, yellow, and red have been adopted by many African countries after their independence as Pan-African colors. Furthermore, school children across the continent started to learn in schools about the significance of the Battle of Adwa. One vital fact we shouldn’t forget from the Battle of Adawa is the decisive role played by women. According to historians, Empress Taitu, the wife of Emperor Menelik, has herself gone to the warfront leading her own army, made of 500 infantry and 600 cavalrymen. Besides, the Empress was accompanied by thousands of women who were armed with spears, shields, and swords to participate in the actual fight. Hence, one could see that such a dramatic outcome of the warfront was possible only because women fought in the same way, as their counterpart men. And that’s why we observe as many women patriots as men on any year anniversary of the battle of Adwa. On March 4, 1896, the New York Times had stated about the Battle of Adwa under the heading, Italy’s Terrible Defeat, “The present campaign against the Abyssinians [former name of Ethiopians] threatens to become one of the most disastrous in which the Italians arms have ever taken part… the latest defeat of the Italians by King Menelik had compelled Ministry to resign, owing to the popular disapproval of the Government's policy..”
In conclusion, the battle of Adwa is emblematic to Africa and the fact that International Women’s day is in March makes the month even more symbolic and “double” anniversary for Ethiopian women, if you may. Despite the Lent season which weakens most people, the commemoration of the Battle of Adwa always boosts the morale of Ethiopians. In particular, once again let’s pay tribute to our women who have sacrificed, along with men, for the country’s freedom.
Haven‘t you ever bumped into certain quips somewhere at some time and has still reverberated in your mind ever since? I bet you have! Some of them might be from a book you read, from an ad or a public sign your eyes have seen. You can‘t help but remember some of these epigrams due to the packed ideas they flaunted through few words. Since they‘re typically short, it‘s easier to learn them by heart. For instance, I can‘t forget the following English quips I read some years ago: ‘Success is not access to excess’, or “On the keyboard of life, always keep one finger near the escape key” or “Take care to get what you like or you will be forced to like what you get”. How beautifully coined! The meanings are just awe-inspiring.
Amharic language, too, lends itself to various forms of figures of speech and witticism, in the form of wisecrack called k’Ϊne. For instance, let‘s have a look at the following:
hodΪn bə gomən bidəlΪlut gulbət bədagət yΪləgΪmal
(If one tries to deceive oneself by not, say, eating well, one‘s strength will surely fails him/her before he/she travels long enough).
“ləmΪn?” laləw fət’ari aləw ; t’əj ləleləw wΪha aləw
For the one who asks ―Why?‖ there‘s God for him; for the other who doesn‘t have t’əj (honey wine), there is tap water).
laləfəw ays’əs’ətum , ləwədəfitu aybələt’um
(One shouldn‘t feel disappointed by someone for what already happened, (knowing that) it won‘t happen again).
However, k’Ϊne is a style of speech where the much-prized hidden meaning is often embedded in only one word or an expression. A great deal of Amharic language depends on one word having, or being interpreted,‘ in more than one way. This style of speech seems to have emanated from the religious teachings of the Orthodox Church. Of course, the k’Ϊne poem, as it has evolved in modern times, with its hidden meanings and frequent ellipses, is in marked contrast to such earlier works as the majestic fifteenth-century Wudase Mariam /Praises to Mary/. Rich and varied in its splendid images as the silk and gold embroidery of an Ethiopian ceremonial robe, k’Ϊne may be a little tricky to understand for people who are unfamiliar with the language and culture. K’Ϊne is usually expressed in a poetic form (rather than in prose) containing two parts called səm and wərk’ (wax and gold) which are derived from the same one word or expression. The wax and gold analogy comes from the craft of the traditional goldsmith during the making of jewelry. The image is first formed in wax, because wax is soft and pliable to carve. The wax is then covered with clay, plaster, or porcelain, which hardens. When the molten gold is poured into the plaster or clay, the wax melts away, leaving the gold, with the desired image. Hence, encrypted and concealed message in k’Ϊne is an ancient art of creating more than one meaning, where the apparent wax‘ and the hidden, gold,‘ are intertwined in the same word.
While it takes longer and perhaps deeper analysis to discuss all types of rich Ethiopian poetry, it may be possible to demonstrate the
operation of k’Ϊne in Amharic language. The framework of economy of words and the often sharp sense of passion attached to k’Ϊne gives it a superior power which greater wordiness might not achieve. As an example of one Amharic word where the same word can have different meanings without any change in stress, is the word "bələw".‘ This word can mean: 'tell him', or 'smack him', or could just be an expression of surprise, when it‘s said with a rising intonation. Isn‘t it astonishing? The best way to illustrate k’Ϊne might be to give you some examples. Here is one:
Eyulət, eyulət yə Ϊgziabher chərnət
BandirachΪn s’ənto arbəňa sich’awət.
It is attributed to the late, Negadras (title of honor during the time of the Emperors) Tessema Eshete, father of the once famous Ethiopian soccer captain and icon, Yednekachew Tessema. It was uttered at one social occasion, where a certain arbəňa‘ /patriot/, who apparently had been given an important political post for his participation in the liberation struggle, had asked the Negadras for a word of praise. (It is pretty common for poets and singers then, to be asked to sing or express praises to famous persons in the community during a wedding or some similar social occasions.)
Unfortunately, the maverick Negadras did not think much of this particular ―arbəňa, and official who had insisted on to be praised. So, the k’Ϊne turned out to be a mocking offense. The səm‘/wax/ meaning is obvious for it can be drawn from a direct reading of the poem. I literally translated it as follows:
Eyulət, eyulət yə Ϊgziabher chərnət =
Just see the kindheartedness of God!
BandirachΪn s‟ənto arbəňa sich’awət. =
Steady is our flag and a patriot has got time to play around.
The hidden meaning, wərk’ (the gold) can be obtained from the word-play of arbəňa. When the word is split into two parts, it be-comes: ar -bəňa, for which ar- means human or animal excrement‘/ feces/ while -bəňa /bə Ϊňa/, means “on us”. So, the embedded meaning of the entire k’Ϊne, becomes: This so-called patriot and political figure fools around and demands praise as if he de-served to his credit when actually nothing could be said about him. What a timeless reminder k’Ϊne for those who would like to remain perpetually praised for their little or no contribution at all. I hope this may help as a means of cracking a door into this wide vista of the Ethiopian lingual legacy.
Chər ΪnsənbΪt ! (Let‘s remain tranquil!)
For anyone, (of course, other than who locks himself up at home possibly, for fear of transmission of ….forget it!) who scrutinizes the scenes on the streets during the last couple of weekends (and week-days) it has already started smelling holiday. It would be easier to figure out from the repeated horns of cars in a non-traffic streets that this is the start of a wedding season. This is so immediately following 'Fasika' /Ethiopian Easter/. Central Statistics Office (CSO) may have it right, but I guess hundreds or even thousands may apply for issuance of marriage certificate during this time; perhaps equal numbers of huge bulls and sheep might be slaughtered for these joyous occasions. I wish them all happy and prosperous marriages! The fact that nothing has changed the grandiose arrangements seem to reflect that the economic downturn has little effect on expenses on weddings around here – the motto appears 'blissful times like these have to be colorfully celebrated, ANYWAY'. I have also witnessed that these periods have been too busy and, shall I say, become the zenith of their business days for the local popular vocalists. I actually saw one popular artist playing his songs in three different wedding festivities I happened to attend in two days. A friend of mine confessed to me, if he had a little melodic voice, he wouldn‘t hesitate to renounce his career for being a zefaň/singer/ full time, specially, come wedding season.
I for one love our wedding songs…truly. There is something about the lyrics that invites joviality. Well, some of them have libretto outwardly a little confusing (I have to admit) even for someone who understands the language but hardly knows the culture. In fact, if you happen to be the bride or groom with plain understanding of the words of these songs (but not the underlying meanings), they may even give you the heebie-jeebies. Take a look at this one with the line…sərg Ϊna mot and nəw… /literally, a wedding and death is the same‘/ you may wonder ―what? However, it isn‘t meant to say that marrying is the same as dying or vice versa. Rather, it is meant to say the deference we bestow to wedding is equally alike to that of one‘s death or bereavement. So much to learn! Among the other wedding songs, for instance, “Yə wəyn abəbaye” / my grape flower (fruit)‘ which refers to the bride/, Amrobətal mushΪraw /‘the groom looks great‘/, Ϊňam wədənal / we too liked it‘(the wedding)/, hay loga ho! /hurray, hurray! /, kulun man kwaləsh / who did the eye make up for you‘?/, sΪri gulΪcha / make the tripod earthenware (upon which your cooking pot rests above the fire)‘ but actually meant get down to the real business‘ / could be mentioned. I must say that side by side with these mundane songs, even perhaps more, (I‘m not good at statistics), were colorful religious wedding songs that have forge ahead to make these wonderful ceremonies vivacious.
All in all, the current wedding season has suddenly transformed the somewhat sober mood of the fasting time to a season of merriment, a hope and dream-come-true wish for the newlyweds and all their dears and nears.
Məlkam GabΪcha ! /Happy Wedding to the newlyweds!/
You may ask any Ethiopian anywhere in the country (or for that matter, anywhere under the sun where they‘re found in abundance) and you‘ll soon find out they‘re members of one or both of these informal socio-economic institutions called Ϊk’ub and ΪdΪr (sorry, if I oversimplify). Ϊk’ub and ΪdΪr are the two most common, lasting, and efficient time-honored socio-economic institutions Ethiopians long ago created. Let‘s see them both.
Ϊk’ub is an association which are often set up by any small group of people (friends, colleagues or just neighbors) in order to provide substantial rotating fund for members with the intention of improving their lives and living conditions. The members of Ϊk’ub usually gather under a tree shade (nowadays, at any convenient place) to discuss and find panaceas to their economic problems. This alliance could be provisional or lasting, depending on the financial needs of the members. Ϊk’ub is more flexible and accessible than the modern banks and requires minimal paper work; they simply operate with available human and/or material resources.
As a result, people without formal education are not discouraged to join. So, from the shoe-shiners and vendors on the streets or generally, from the rank and file to the highest levels of the Ethiopian society, almost every-body is a member of one or more of these Ϊk’ubs. Therefore, for a small payment each week or month, members of Ϊk’ub can keep a steady influx of money to help themselves on a rotational basis. For instance, Ϊk’ub enables a family, including the wealthy, to acquire the necessary funding for occasions such as, weddings, or activities as constructing a house, or starting a micro-business. The rotating fund is a means to make investments that one would normally never consider making due to unavailability of such hoarded money at one time.
ΪdΪr, on the other hand, is a long term union usually formed among large numbers of fellow dwellers, workers or various groups of people to raise funds that would be used during emergencies, such as death within these groups and their loved ones. ΪdΪr members are required to attend funerals and must always be ready to help the grieving family (actually, in recent times, ΪdΪrs have widened their scope of functions and started helping out even the sick monetarily). In fact, the various ΪdΪrs in the country have done commendable jobs by being critical sources of social stability to the needy. The weekly or monthly membership fee for ΪdΪr is minimal and affordable by all. That‘s why ΪdΪr is sometimes described as group life insurance‘.
Though not recorded per se, Ϊk’ub and ΪdΪr have been crucial informal institutions that have salvaged millions of families from a lot of big and small (usually, off the record) fiscal slumps at various times; anchored in just indigenous knowledge and mutual confidence, they have effectively addressed the socio-economic needs of our society in a sustainable way. What‘s more, these traditional associations attach no other definite criteria to enroll as a member, other than the willingness and commitment to regularly pay and help out each other. Therefore, they were able to transcend all linguistic, religious, or ethnic boundaries, making our society more stable and cohesive. Could these bodies continue to serve now (as they used to) to overcome people‘s local financial needs in the era of international economic downturn? Who knows, time will tell.
Məlkam SamΪnt – Have a great week!
Have you ever thought that there would be any connection between a bone (perhaps with roasted soft meat on it) and a month? Seems weird, isn’t it? There is, however, a sound link between the Ethiopian second month, T’ϊkϊmt, and bone, at’ϊnt, (naturally with meat to chew on it).
Here’s the story: As the rainy season gives in to the beginning of the sunny time of the year, the second month, T’ϊkϊmt ( October), the weather specially, the mornings and nights suddenly turn chilly (at least used to be), as it is the coldest month of the year(appears to be paradoxical to have cool weather with the coming of the sunny days).
It was common to hear lots of bedside stories beginning like “once on a usual cold October day” and so forth. And the elderly people usually counsel people to eat a little more meat than usual at this period so as to survive the chilly climate. That’s why we have the saying bə T’ϊkϊmt and at’ϊnt which is literally translated as ‘A bone with meat on it is required in most of the meals eaten in October’ (I haven’t heard any advice that‘s helpful for the vegans). This is perhaps because Ethiopia is mostly a culture where meat eating is not basically relegated to a festive event. Perhaps that’s why it is quite common to see large number of people around the slaughterhouses and some restaurants eating raw and roasted meat at this time of the year.
Talking of meat, Ethiopia is amongst Africa’s top cattle holders; according to the recent statistics, the country houses 40 million cattle and 50 million sheep and goats and it is at the moment exporting about 6,000 tons of meat out of which most of them comes from goat and sheep. However weird it might seem, don’t forget a single advice from the elderly and the wise - bə T’ϊkϊmt and at’ϊnt - make sure to have at least a bone with meat before you hit the sack at the end of the day in the coming month, T’ϊkϊmt.
chər ϊnsənbϊt! (Let’s hold on happily!)
I remember an ex-colleague who once said, "The moment I read about the iniquity of drinking, I gave up read-ing" (…instead of drinking). He has never once believed that drinking is too bad. He could have been the first to call me and ―herald the recent incredible ―flat-earth kind of news released by BBC, had he not renounced reading anything about alcohol. Just last week, a British Medical Journal published the works of a lead researcher professor Morten Gronbaek from the National Institute of Public Health in Denmark. In brief, the study pointed out that people will be ―immune from incidence of heart at-tacks, strokes, and other forms of circulatory disease, and might reduce the incidence of certain cancers if only they are drinkers. This study suggests that the benefits of boozing increase with age. Accordingly, ―indeed over age 65, not only does moderate drinking prolong life, but so does heavy drinking! The moderate drinkers have a 40 percent lower mortality rate than the abstainers, and even the heavy drinkers have a 12 per cent lower mortality rate. Wow!
While for some across the globe this has simply been a mockery of science, several people have already showed a proclivity for boozing around here, at least. Some have already increased their daily consumption up to four bïrïle (flask for drinking T’әj (honey wine) ….the teetotalers are sure to join the club…gradually. As a result of this scientific ―breakthrough, I can assure you that in no time we‘ll constantly be reminded by the age-old maxim of the night owl 'one for the road' in our local TV and billboards. It‘s no more a surprise that time has come when 'an apple a day …'changes to 'a drink a day'.
Since T’әj is still highly regarded by most communities in Ethiopia as a magical drink, such news would definitely create halcyon days, if you may, for owners of T’әj betoch (T’әj houses). Being made of honey, water and gesho (the fermenting herb), many local folks enjoy this local drink called T’әj. To make T’әj milder just take out the gesho, and you have a beverage called bïrz, (a mixture of honey and water that is allowed to ferment, very slightly, on its own for a few days before it's consumed). Bïrz, doesn't have the spicy pungency of full-on T’әj, and it certainly doesn't have the alcohol con-tent.
Even various ancient documents testify that T’әj has been part of the ordinary food table, for a very long time, at least, to the ones with moderate incomes, and surely for the royalty. Even a third century A.D historical text during the height of Axum's power, described it vividly. The inscription goes on to portray the victuals of the monarchy as follows: "There's virgin mutton, virgin beef, honey, wheat, beer, a bucket of butter and - best of all - T’әj, honey wine." Even to date at different parts of Ethiopia, T’әj has still been made with various flavors, thus, "ye'mar T’әj ," honey wine made with honey," "ye'areke T’әj " (flavored with areke, a gin-like local drink), "ye'buna T’әj," which is honey wine flavored with coffee (buna), or we can make "ye'birtukan T’әj " (flavored with orange), or "ye'zinjibil T’әj " (flavored with ginger), or "ye'muz T’әj " (flavored with banana) …I really doubt whether some of us have ever heard or tasted any of the above flavors… Anyway, while the fresh discovery surely serves regular drinkers to tempt some to join their club, the former‘s call was not just to turn us drink up to a merry pitch till the tongues run before our wit, and never give off till the drink be all out. On the contrary, I think, drinking in moderation has always been the commonplace folk‘s wisdom around here, as it may be elsewhere. In fact, the Amharic saying, “marïm sibәza yïmәral” (even honey turns sour if it‘s taken too much") explains it plainly.
However, for now alcohol appears the answer, and chances are some big names would soon start endorsing alcoholic beverages like T’әj and other local drinks. I also expect the first to act in this direction could be local vocalists who would amend their video clips by showing yә bïrïle T’әj,(a flask of T’әj) who knows? It‘s something to encourage moderate drinking so as to live healthier and longer lives. It‘s another to stretch its context beyond a drink a day to keep a heart disease away.
The International Handbook on Alcohol and Culture says toasting "is probably a secular vestige of ancient sacrificial libations in which a sacred liquid was offered to the gods: blood or wine in exchange for a wish, a prayer summarized in the words ‘long life!’ or ‘to your health’’! Indeed it’s an old tradition that can be dated back to the time of the ancient Greeks. Another document states that whenever there was a gathering or a massive celebration, the Greeks would gather, pour wine and toast one another celebrating the occasion. This gesture was later picked up by the other cultures around the world and passed on through generations until we end up with the toasting tradition that we know today. Toasting is something that is done at almost every celebratory or festive occasion where one a person or two may stand up and say a few nice things either about the person or persons or the occasion. As you know, they then will clink their glasses together and cheer before downing their drink. This toasting tradition in Ethiopia is also age-old. Grabbing one’s təj, honey wine or t’əla, local beer or any other drinks, such as arək’e, especially at celebrations like this one, New Year (Adis Amət or Ϊnk’ut’at’ash) people toast with a hearty –“lə t’enachΪn “-! That's the Ethiopian way, which means "to our health." As we are moving forward to the Adis Amət, 2002, (oops, counting your age in Ethiopian calendar makes you feel younger) I think many things deserve to be cherished and we dare raise our glasses and make toasts for them. Of course, it’s not that all of them were deeply remembered for their good sides, but in anticipation that they may, in some inexplicable way, would bring about affirmative results in the Adis Amət. First and foremost, a toast” lə t’enachΪn” for seeing another day, another Adis Amət, despite all the soaring prices of goods and cereals, especially that of bəg (sheep) and doro (chicken) and k’Ϊbe (butter) which are core to Ethiopian holiday festivities. A toast “lə l’ΪjochachΪn” (for our kids) for they will be heading to the next level of educational challenge, though the school fees have skyrocketed like no other time.
A toast “lə k’ələbət məngədochachΪn” (for our newly constructed ring-roads), since they were completed this past year, though the dramatic increase of gas price may restrict us from fully enjoying our vehicles on these highways. A toast “Yə bΪrhan Amət YΪhunΪlΪn” (let the new-year be that of light) for our new Electric Power House, GΪlgəl Gibe I, (one of the three project sites was said to be completed this past year), even if we are still having several months of dark nights. Yet, we always see the Adis Amət as a hope to see better things and situations. Was it Tom Clancy who said, “Man is a creature of hope and invention, both of which belie the idea that things cannot be changed”? So, it’s very customary in Ethiopian culture to celebrate the Adis Amət with such a mindset of hope and wishful toast. I hereby stop and make a toast for this year – Adisu Amət Yət’ena, Yə səlam, Yə bΪls’ΪgΪna Ϊna Yə dəsta zemen YΪhunΪlΪn, literally translated as “Let the New Year be of health, peace, prosperity and happiness”!
As the week began with Martin Luther King’s day, it‘s natural to honorably echo his life, legacy, bravery and his influence elsewhere in the world. Not only as the symbolic leader of American blacks but also as a world figure whose imprints had universal impact. His struggle for freedom and human rights left a great impression throughout the nations. His love for his people and country didn‘t let him sit idly with his arms folded and allow brutality to reign over his own fellowmen. He was arrested twenty times and assaulted at least four times; yet, he didn‘t give up, and his unwavering struggle finally took away his life, as well. However, his sacrifice bore fruits eventually.
When I think of Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., another man always comes to my mind concurrently in Ethiopian history. Both individuals had some marked similarities, which is the focus of today‘s piece. Not only were both of these people God‘s servants, but also passionate lovers of their people and country. They both nobly sacrificed their lives for their great cause: exposing the injustice and suppression of their people by their perpetrators. Well, that man who used to live on this side of the planet (whom some even compared him to saints), and who demonstrated similar kind of incredible heroism as MLK, is Yetekeberu (Reverend) Abune (Patriarch) Petros (Peter). Abune Petros was one of the first four native Ethiopians who were anointed as bishops by the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria to serve under the Coptic born Archbishop Abune K‟erllos of Ethiopia in 1932. Abune Petros was given the province of Wello (north eastern part of Ethiopia) as his diocese. In 1936, the Fascist Italian armies of Benito Mussolini occupied much of Ethiopia, and Abune Petros traveled to the then northern Shewa district of Menz to join the sons of Ras (honorary title of the army, which means ‘head’) Kassa, and other resistance leaders to plan an attack on the Italians to drive them out of Addis Ababa. Nevertheless, this plan of assault failed the following year, and the Bishop was captured in 1937. To cut a long story short, the Italians gave him the following ultimatum upon his detention: to stop preaching against the occupying army‘s violence and terror against civilians and the patriots, accept the Italian authorities in Addis Ababa and ultimately condemn his fellow
patriots as bandits. “Otherwise”, he was told, “you will lose your life”. Here comes the extraordinary heroism of this individual: Abune Petros refused to comply with the ultimatum set by his tormentors, and through the Italian interpreter, gave the following response to the interrogating officers of the invading army: “The lamentation of my fellow people who died due to your nerve-gas diffusion and bombardment of heavy shells will never be forgotten; my con-science could never accommodate your ultimatum. How could I see my God if I have a blind eye to such a heinous crime?” and turning towards his people, he quoted from the Scriptures, “Listen to me, you who know righteousness, a people in whose heart is my law, do not fear the reproach of man, nor be dismayed at their revilings. For the moth will eat them like garment …… (Isaiah 51:7-8)”. Blessed are those who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Matthews 5:10)”. And he paused...forever. Seeing that he defiantly refused to submit to the Italian rule, he was immediately condemned to death. Shortly before his execution, Abune Petros dressed in his clerical robes, (as you see him on his statue) held up his hand cross and pronounced his anathema on the people and on the very earth of Ethiopia itself, if his people were ever to submit to the invader. He was then shot to death in front of a horrified audience. What more heroism could be demonstrated for a love of one‘s people and country other than such one?
To conclude, both Martin Luther King Jr. and Abune Petros were simply ordinary men but they exhibited extraordinary heroism in confronting inhumanity and repressive regimes. It was this magnificent courage that made them exceptionally laudable. Were these two gallant personalities able to exhibit such kind of incredible heroism due to their strong faith in God? And could lack of such individuals in society (who can take such a bold act of sacrifice to one‘s fellow people), the main reason for not yielding notable changes in bringing about true democracy? As Elmer Davis once said, "A nation will remain the land of the free only so long as it is the home of the brave." Let‘s all take this opportunity to thank both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Abune Petros for demonstrating love and compassion to their people through sacrifice.
Falling down the stairs is perhaps not pretty high on your anxiety list at the moment. However, the March, 2009 report of CDC on morbidity and mortality rate stated that “every day about 240 people go to emergency rooms nationwide for injuries from falls involving dogs and cats ” http://blogs.usatoday.com/betterlife/2009/03/see-spot-trip-y.html .This sank in to my mind and generated ideas that could be used for today’s consumption.
It is not my intention to bring to your notice something awful, but it seems inevitable to bump into some of these situations at one time or another, according to the info. Or at least, it’s sometimes unavoidable to be right on the spot when they actually occur. Imagine the scene of falling down the stairs holding books or cups. Or more seriously, skidding and falling with one of the kids or losing balance while carrying them near a banister on a 1st floor (let’s hope, nothing serious happens). Or just imagine a huge robust shelf fall and crash on (oh -----on nobody, for Christ sake, where the….do I bring such terrible examples, what has gotten in to me?). Anyway, if or when you happen to be around such scenarios you articulate something instinctively, even it’s a yell or scream without a meaning. That’s where we often use the cool Amharic word, Ϊnen / let it be me, (instead of you)/. Isn’t it such a beautiful expression, I mean, to wish the accident happens on you rather than that someone else, even if that someone else is an individual you don’t know. (At least, the thought is) ! In moments such as this, you may be next to a victim but can’t offer any help (perhaps, because it takes place so abruptly, or for some other reason,) except just being a bystander with your arms fold, of course, until seconds or a minute later. This is where the Amharic word Ϊnen oozes naturally out of your mouth. Sometimes even two, three times -Ϊnen, Ϊnen, Ϊnen! Did I hear someone dive the stairs? Ϊnen !
The second expression is nwor (Don’t worry this one is not used for something horrible). Just like some Asian countries, Ethiopians have bowing expressions, in greetings. However, nwor is a little different from the former. You say nwor /accompanied by bowing your head and standing for a second or so/ when someone often enters a room, say, after a brief excuse in a rest room, or taking a minute leave to speak to a friend on a mobile, or apologizing for a minute to tell a message to someone on the corridor, etc. The usual response for nwor is aygəbam /which means “you shouldn’t have” (stood up) / or sometimes bəlijochachΪn / literally, “in the name of our children, you shouldn’t have”/.
To wrap up, language expressions are mostly interwoven with culture and when applied appropriately to the occasion they give more sense and clarity to the intended meanings. Although some words, or expressions would change overtime (due to so many reasons), Ϊnen and nwor are two of our cool Amharic expressions that have still adhered to the cultural heritages.
You know that the English word ‘invalid’ conveys two meanings depending on whether the stress falls on the first syllable (vowel) ‘`invalid’ meaning ‘feeble or sickly’, or while the stress falls in the second syllable ‘in`valid’ ‘unacceptable or void’. Similarly, Amharic has a couple of “invalids”. Take a look at them:
‘wa`na’ means ‘main or major’ when the stress falls on ‘n’. So you can say ‘wa`na hasab nəw’, to mean ‘It’s a main idea’. Careful, ‘wana’ means ‘swimming’, pronounced without any stress. So you can say wana t’ïru sport nəw’ (Swimming is a good sport).
‘a`lə’ with a stress on ‘l’ means ‘there is’, as in ‘zinab a`lə’ (there’s rain). Without a stress, however, it means ‘he said ’, as ‘ïsu yïhïn alə’ (he said this).
‘`gəna’ with a stress on the 1st syllable `g refers to the traditional game usually played at Christmas or sometimes, the Christmas holiday itself. However, with no stress gəna means ‘yet’, as ‘gəna nəw’ (It’s not yet).
Amharic has a couple of them like these, but enough intake for today.
Let me give you a tongue twister I coined – give them a try!
‘`gəna gəna nəw’
‘wana wa`na sport nəw’
Got the meaning??
Məlkam samïnt !
We all know that hair is an outer expression of culture and heritage. It’s true that apart from being an image of personal elegance, most of our contemporary hair styles that are donned by folks in Ethiopia are not merely reflections of fashion. They run deper than sheer craze. In other words, the hairstyles we see at present, be it those of gentlemen, ladies, or children are all intensely ingrained in our past. A two-hour or so drive north, south , east or west of the country will depict this fact, as you will be able to witness the numerous hairstyles of women and men: Sadula, Zerantϊch, Gədera, Gofəre, Gufta, Eshem Dereb, Gungun, Mərtu, Shuruba, Gutena, Nazrawi, etc. While it calls for deeper analysis to discuss each type of hairstyle in their cultural and historical contexts, today’s piece deals with solely the one that is still very popular and trendy no less than it was in the earlier era – the shuruba. Among the ones mentioned, some seem to communicate a range of symbolic meanings than others. Shuruba is one of them and is a kind of hairstyle that puts on plaits tightly braided to the head and fuzzing out at the shoulders. Originating in the northern part of Ethiopia, shuruba, used to be hairstyles shared by both men and women, and to this day, people in all quarters of the country are styled with it (of course, in some cases, with hair extensions and bead embroidery). Our beloved emperors and empresses Tewodros (Theodore), Yohannes (John), Menelik’s astute wife, empress Taitu used to beautify their hairs with braids and cornrows called shuruba.
Emulating our Emperrors and empresses, our present day ladies (and in some cases few young boys, too) are seen embellishing themselves with this wonderful shuruba hairstyle. Whether it’s braided as a cornrow or as a free-hanging braid, the amazing shuruba has long become an emblem of pride and patriotism. Fashions, as we all know, come and go with times, and throughout history, society has replicated popular culture icons, be it clothing , ways of life, speech modulations , etc. What’s most astounding with shuruba, though, is despite the counteless diversity of modern-day hairstyles out there in the hair salons, it has still dictated the hair vogue of the day and become the fad of our ladies and few youngsters. Interestingly, though, we don’t see a real comeback of this iconic hairstyle of Ethiopian patriotism with gentlemen, unlike the ladies.
Was it because Ethiopian ladies sense more nationalism, or is it just because they are much closer to styles, or are there some other reasons ? God knows! But one thing is for sure – shuruba has still the potentiial to remain and continue to be the most favored hairstyle for most Ethiopians in the years ahead.
I’m not yet done with Afar region. Well, it might be mind boggling for some to think of Afar as a spectacular location where not only the homeland of the oldest hominid like Ardi, but also a site with a spectacular geological phenomen. This is what today’s piece is about. This is the reason why nobody except those who are blessed to see it with their bare eyes, could their appreciation be profound and marvel at the true worth of this exceptional geological phenomenon. It is here where you could actually use the English saying "the proof of the pudding is in the eating" for it can’t be otherwise. As much as Ethiopia is endowed with medley culture, she also has a unique ecological mosaic: a landscape that varies from 116 meters below sea level at the beaming sulfuric blaze of Dallol Depression, in the Afar region, to the alpine highland peaks that rise to 4620 meters above sea level at Ras Dashen in the rocky Semien mountains; besides, the world's most phenomenal rift valley that cuts the country into two, forming a series of spectacular chain of lakes and hot springs lavish in real life forms. In brief, if at all, you rarely find such diametrically contrasting panoramas at its finest state in one nation: a divinely serene nature devoid of human intrusion, on the one hand and unique active geological phenomenon on the other. (well, unfortunately, due to some factors, and unlike other parts of the country, nobody is advised to go to the latter location without careful arrangements at the moment,,… may be some day (and k’ən) .
Afar has as many as three great significances in both archaeology and geology, according to the scientists who wrote about its topographical state. First, the region serves as the meeting place of three separate pieces of the earth’s crust, known to geologists as the Afar Triple Junction, one of the earth's most organically active areas. Secondly, it is the birth place of the first ever human fossil, Lucy or DΪnk’nesh…(actually Ardi is much older hominid now), and finally, officially, the year-round hottest places anywhere on earth. This extraordinarily unique natural site is the Afar depression, (also called the Danakil Depression or the Afar Triangle ) which is situated in the north eastern part of Ethiopia.
The physical beauty of the Dallol depression is just stunning: from a close look one can see the mountain vistas, geysers and hot springs apart from the salty plain. Crossing those marble-like surface edged with a grey belt of earth and sand and the detritus, one could step out on the pure crystalline rock-salt, towards the Dallol Hill. As the sun set, the hills and the columns looked like masses of bronze, lit up on one side with a ruddy light. Their outlines were sharply defined against the violet-tinted sky, and under them the plain seemed to have turned into a great sheet of opal. The above incredible snapshots were taken by an American scientist who was studying about the place for some time and has put them on the Scientific American journal. You may want to see many more wonderful photos of the region from the following website. http://www.sciam.com/slideshow.cfm?id=birth-of-an-ocean&thumbs=horizontal&photo_id=44138B76-0F33-4CD4-6BBF2BB310B4F06C
In brief, Afar, has not only recently left us in awe for being the true birthplace of our ancient ancestors, (with the discovery of the four million year old Ardi), but a closer look of the region depicts that it is endowed with a stunning geological phenomenon. Simply put, it’s astounding to find all these natural gifts of nature “wrapped” in one place.
Monday, January 9, 2012
Ethiopians are famed for quite a number of things, among others, such as, being the original home of the human race(the recently found 4 million-old hominid, Ardi, is to be recalled); the long-race running, which has produced worldwide legendary athletes as none before, such as Abebe Bikila, Mirus Yifter, Haile G/selassie, Derartu Tulu, Meseret Defar and many others; the sundry magnificent historical sites, (such as Lalibela, Axum, Fasil Wall, and the like that vividly portray the former civilization); Dallol Depression which is nature’s unique endowment in the midst of diverse climate ; the distinctive eating traditions and cuisines that, I’m sure, have become addictive to many foreigners, the multifarious dazzling cultures of the no-less than 80 ethnic groups …and so on. In case if you’re unaware, there’s one more addition to these, in fact, a peculiar one. This addition is the prestigious emblem of the nation and the continent at large - Ethiopian Airlines (EAL) (commonly known as Ethiopian), which is precisely the focus of this article.
Launching its first flights in 1946, with no other airline in place in the whole of Africa, with the national flag of the country on it, Ethiopian is a pioneer in African aviation. According to Aviation Week, Ethiopian maintained an excellent reputation under the different regimes. Particularly, after it started flying Boeing 720 jets in January 1963, it has shown its capacity as one of the best world class 3 airlines. Pioneering long range, thinly traveled routes to unique city pairs was an enduring part of Ethiopian's methodology, noted Air Transport World. For instance, in 1975, EAL introduced the first direct service to China (Beijing) from Africa. While such moves were risky, Ethiopian attracted quite a good number of competitors and generally became profitable within a few years. Ethiopian continued to thrive even in the two global aviation downturns: one which followed the 9/ 11/ 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, and the other is the current global economic recession, where we have witnessed absolute collapse of many airlines, even that of developing and developed nations. Apart from the direct travel services, Ethiopian has its own school for pilots and mechanics that was established to train personnel from Africa and the Middle East, and has so far graduated enough capable technical crews for many countries across the continent and beyond. Through all these, the fast-growing airline has opened employment opportunity for more than 2,000 people.
Ethiopian pilots and airline crews are highly-esteemed for the meticulous skills and gifts they exhibited in various difficult and trying circumstances. One instance in which such scrupulous talents were demonstrated by Ethiopian technical crews on board was the situation in the Comoros Island in 1996 on EAL B-767 aircraft which was en route from Addis to Nairobi, where 53 people were rescued despite the attacks of terrorist hijackers who wanted all on board blown up. Out of the attempted 10 major hijackings in Ethiopian, according to AirDisaster.com, all the incidents were safely over except that of Comoros Island, which has its own great merits, as well, thanks to the wonderful talents of the technical crews. Needless to say, Ethiopian has won numerous awards for excellence and indeed one of the safest airlines in its long history.
I for one (I believe there were many like me) haven’t yet fully enjoyed reading and entirely discussed the repercussion of the good news with others that was published by a couple of international reports (just before the recent aircraft ordeal) which heralded: “Ethiopian ordered 10 Boeing Co's (BA.N) Next-Generation 737-800s for a total price of $767 million,…” (Reuters, January 22, 2010) when, all of a sudden, popped up the tragic announcement of our own Boeing 737 which fell into the Mediterranean with 90 people on board last week. I sincerely take this opportunity to offer my condolences to those who lost their loved ones in this shocking disaster. Since its inception, Ethiopian has never ever encountered such a grave catastrophe, other than this one whose cause has still been inexplicable until this point in time. Whatever the root cause might have been, the all-Boeing operator Ethiopian which has already built a solid reputation globally and has ambitious growth plans, too, undoubtedly remains in the forefront to be the pride and shining beacon of our nation and the continent at large.
Have you lately been sensitive to the gimmick by the road and virtually in all the newly –constructed buildings of Addis Ababa? You must have, unless, of course, you intentionally…..., forget it. It seems to me as though the City Administration Council “proclaimed” not to grant permission for proprietors to build their towers unless they are willing to rent several forms for, at least, a couple of massage or spa service providers. Obviously, the spiraling of massage-houses in the metropolis appears to be tantamount to the shooting up of these fresh buildings, or so it seems. Of course, it’s not a bad idea to relieve one’s muscle stiffness, spasms or cramps, and become stress-free once in while (though it may seem bizarre to find lots of the masseurs crammed in one location, Bole Area….they are situated at nearly every 100 or so meters walk, and in some instances, even 4 or 5 spa houses are found in one stair of a building). After all, the therapeutic worth of massage has been acknowledged since time immemorial. From the Far East to the West Indies, from North Pole to the South end of the globe, people have been benefitting from its physical, physiological and psychological cure. It’s believed to be the oldest and simplest form of medical care. However, most of the mushrooming massages in the spa-rooms of the newly built towers (not mentioning some who are out of whack) are filled with young skilled masseurs who practice just the contemporary massage. Referring back to an etymological dictionary, one can see that the actual term ‘massage’ is derived from the Arabic word, ‘mash’- meaning to knead and to press softly. Some countries give it different names, for instance, India calls it Ayurveda, with its aromatic oil and spices; ‘Shiatsu’ is its Japanese name and for their abdominal massage, they call it ampuku ; Ethiopian traditional massage is called Wāyba (Tis) . This time-honored highly curative massage, Wāyba (Tis), is entirely different from the contemporary ones, which is what this piece focuses. Originated in the heart of Wollo, north-eastern part of the country, Wāyba (Tis) has now broadened in various parts of the country. But the peculiarity of Wāyba (Tis) massage is very striking. First of all, it is only intended for ladies but not for gentlemen (I’m sorry, guys). This is because the worth of the practice is more than relieving stress or muscle cramps. It’s rather proven to bring out ladies’ beauty and splendor. Moreover, it’s believed even to heal feminine sterility and difficulties during baby-delivery. Secondly, the oil applied on the body is not that of aromatic sorts common to most other type of massages, but pure Ethiopian butter. This makes it possible to open clogged pores of the skin and doll up the individual. Thirdly, once the entire body is greased with the butter she’ll sit and bask in gentle smokes of different multipurpose indigenous tree barks and herbs, letting the smell permeate the body, which is central to the curative process. It’s only then that she would be rubbed down. She then could bathe and complete the entire ‘theater’. It’s still customary for all brides and other females to take Wāyba (Tis) massage. Alas, Wāyba (Tis) as a medicinal practice has not widened as the contemporary ones especially, in the hub of Addis.The main reason, so the practitioners claim, is that its great worth has been camouflaged by the modern ones, and people seem to lose the age-old restorative exercise.
Well, it’s not generally bad of becoming habitué of these emerging masseurs or at least go for the gusto once in a while. Nevertheless, many practitioners have great concern that some of the value and prestige of this ancient profession, Wāyba (Tis), may be lost with unsavory image created by some of the so-called contemporary “massage parlors”. Whether the modern trend of expansion of massage services in the new towers positively contribute to the timeless medicinal worth of the art remains to be seen. And at the moment, Wāyba (Tis) seems to have left with two options: make its vigorous reappearance by revealing all the medicinal worth as cultural la mode, as it is seen in some parts of the metropolis, or else give in to the modern practices altogether.
Don’t blame me for my bewilderment, but I think I have sensed some “universal” confusion these days in several things, among which our use of languages is one. Somebody was asked, “Why can common names cause confusion?” for which his reply was “because common names are not common names at all.” How true this is for countless things in today’s world! There are so many confusions over names of people, medicines, trade, road-signs and acronyms used even in international conferences. One simple instance of confusion we’ve had recently was the acronym COP. I thought we were done with what we call COP10 season here at CDC, but all of a sudden, COP15 popped up in international Medias showing Copenhagen’s UN Climate Change Conference, which conundrums many of us…perhaps as confusing as the end-result of the summit, itself. Speaking of climate change, the condition here in Addis, as it has been elsewhere, is definitely not positive… we did a colossal harm to nature…I mean, we deprive her right from following her usual cycle, and as a result, it’s been impossible to tell what her seasons unfold, or simply put, difficult to tell when actually is going to rain or not, ….another confusion. Well, confusions are common with many other acronyms, too: for instance, someone mentioned CBI a couple of times in her conversation to us, a group of listeners, and when the tête-à-tête ended, I went to look it up in the dictionary, for which it meant fifty or so different meanings, and I didn’t know which to take... but just lingered with confusion. I guess if words and acronyms of languages develop in such a swift geometric progression, we have to be reminded every now and then with the new meanings in order to make sure healthy communication is in place in the day-to-day discourse. Otherwise, confusions are sure to reign.
Last year about this time a ferenji /foreigner/whom I know well asked me if I could show him a ‘Gəbeta. (I know you are reading this article now, but I didn’t mention it to embarrass you). Since he said it with lucid pronunciation, and coincidentally at the perfect timing of lunch hour, I didn’t dare ask him to repeat the word. Instead, without more ado, I told him to follow me straight to the nearest traditional restaurant. While we were comfortably waiting for our lunch, I proudly started explaining the different features of the traditional dining table called mesob and Gəbeta and what we, Ethiopians, mean by Gəbeta … what it is made of and even went further to explain the long-established etiquettes, when all of a sudden, I intuited some confusion on the look of my ferenji friend…I realized that he meant not the dining table, ‘Gəbeta but ‘Gəbet’a , the totally different meaning…it was my turn to be embarrassed for the confusion created (although I had to admit the food we had to eat despite the confusion was scrumptious). ‘Gəbet’a, which my friend was referring to, was pronounced with the explosive t’ and is a traditional board game. Sometimes, it’s called ‘Sïlus Gəbet’a’, (Gəbet’a for 18). By the way, going back to the climate issue, there’s one widespread confusion which we could avoid when calling the common Ethiopian name, Bekele. if you call somebody Bəkələ instead of the explosive Bək’ələ , you’re actually saying ‘contaminated’ (oops… he must have been condemned by COP15) rather than calling his rightful name Bək’ələ which means ‘sprouted or took root’. In conclusion, as ‘Gena (Christmas) approaches (not Gena which means ‘not yet’….) it’s my hope that we won’t bump into any other confusion.
Mәlkam Gәna /Happy Christmas/, Mәlkam Adis Amәt /Happy NewYear/
(Written at about Ethiopian Christmas of 2010)
The other day, I saw two people on the street maltreating a certain donkey (I don’t think maltreating rightfully expresses the actual injury and pain I witnessed), which makes me brood over to write this article. Addis Ababa has been changing…especially, the highways and buildings under construction have given the metropolis a better look now than it had some years back. As the Amharic saying goes ‘k’es bek’es in’kulal begru yihedal’ (literally, it means ‘the egg slowly but surely stands on its feet and starts walking’), the city seems to be under its own steam… though, as many agree, at a snail's pace. In conjunction with these radical transformations, the common mode of transport has also greatly expanded, too, so to say. From our still beloved public transport servants, dear donkeys, and carts, to the minibuses and the recent ones which are a little larger than the minibuses called Hagar, (the Chinese-made public transport), our city now boasts of having ample transportation across all quarters. Of course, given the alarmingly increasing number of population and the growing city, these are just not going to be enough. And this implies that it’s not time for our long-term public transport servants, dear donkeys, to be retired.
Donkeys are one of the hardest working equines used by man when he took up agriculture and they can be seen in cave paintings across Africa as well as Europe. Donkeys have given a lot of services other than being a major form of transport. Before the introduction of high speed cars and trains and until they became feral (not in Addis, though), they used to be the sole means of traveling from one place to another. They also served in tilling the land just like today’s tractors... and they still do. However, they haven’t ever been fairly treated anywhere on earth. In fact, they have been despised and regarded as weak, selfish and careless, not only by our local folks by almost all people around the world. Despite their hard work, donkeys appear to be the only creatures that are universally ridiculed. There are many disheartening sayings that surely have given donkeys scornful look among people. For instance, ye ahiya bal ke jib ayast’il (which is literally translated as ‘the husband of a donkey won’t rescue (save) her from a hyena’) simply exposing its weakness. Having more examples from different world languages could illustrate this: ‘The world wouldn’t make a racehorse of a donkey’ goes an Irish proverb. “Butcher the donkey after it finished his job on the mill,” the Chinese saying continues. Even the English orator and great preacher of the 19th century, Charles Spurgeon pictured it disdainfully as follows: “A worthy man is still worthy even penniless; a donkey is a donkey even if he is finely saddled.” We can still mention several others, if not for short of space and time. Even people use it when they rudely call names to someone (even using the other derogative A-word, you know what I mean by that). However, forgetting the commendable service this wonderful creature has given to the development of a nation should not be ancient history. Although we have just started to drive in highways, we should not feel as if we’re completely done with this creature, because we are still using it far and wide in the regions and in the metropolis, too. Besides, we have a long way to go in the realm of freeway construction. We still depend on them, like it or not, for carriage, transport as well as for farming, which unfortunately couldn’t go without these dearest creatures at the moment. All in all, I believe donkeys should get their due respect and honor for the long-year services they have rendered to us.